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17th December, 2018

Why Asbestos Was Used In So Many Building Products

Claiming around 5,000 deaths per year in the UK, asbestos is constructions biggest killer and one of its biggest mistakes. Known as the ‘hidden killer’, it should be no secret that if you are in the construction industry, you are at increased risk of asbestos exposure.

Asbestos kills around 40 tradesmen a week, a figure that has been rising for decades. Because asbestos was used heavily in building products, it can also harm others that come into contact with it in their homes or workplaces.

Asbestos is known as (thanks to the HSE campaign) the ‘hidden killer’. You can find it hidden in thousands of buildings, in hundreds of building products.

If asbestos is so dangerous, why was it used in so many building products? Why did the construction industry make such a fatal mistake?

Why asbestos was used

Asbestos was used because as a construction material, it's brilliant. Brilliant? What is so brilliant about one of the greatest health risks facing the industry?

There are several properties that make asbestos brilliant for building materials:

  • Strong
  • Cheap
  • Sound Insulation
  • Heat Insulation
  • Fire Protection
  • Resistant to Chemicals
  • Resistant to Water
  • Resistant to Electricity

Asbestos is a naturally occurring material found throughout the world. Used for thousands of years, asbestos products go as far back as the ancient Greeks and Romans.

It became popular in the UK following the industrial revolution. Asbestos was commercialised and imported in huge quantities for manufacturing.

Great sound and heat insulation, strong, cheap and with fantastic fire resistance. Perfect properties for construction, which is why it was used so much. So brilliant, that asbestos is present in many commercial and domestic buildings across the UK.

Building products containing asbestos

Asbestos is in hundreds of commercial products produced at its peak in the 50s-70s. Advertised and promoted as a wonder product by suppliers, and it was sought after by builders and property owners.

Some examples of building products that contained asbestos include:

  • Asbestos Cement
  • Roof Tiles
  • Ceiling Tiles
  • Floor Tiles
  • Loose Insulation
  • Insulating Boards
  • Textured Coatings
  • Sprayed Coatings
  • Fire Doors
  • Fire Blankets
  • Pipe Lagging
  • Downpipes
  • Rainwater Goods
  • Soffits and Fascias
  • Cladding
  • Electrical Panels
  • Window Cills
  • Partitions
  • Sink Pads
  • Toilet Seats

Asbestos-containing products are in all types of buildings. Schools, hospitals, offices, hotels, homes, and every other type of structure.

Banned in the UK today, it is still present in hundreds of thousands of buildings. Mixed into the fabric of the building, or within previously installed products. And, because it was used in so many building products in the past, it is hard to know which ones contain asbestos.

Why asbestos is still dangerous

As popularity peaked in the 50s-70s, public awareness of the health hazards grew. Asbestos diseases can take decades to develop, and people exposed years before were getting ill and dying. In 1985 the UK prevented some asbestos use, and by 1999 all types of asbestos-containing materials were banned in the UK.

asbestos fibres strong

Turns out, the properties of asbestos that are so good for construction, are not so great for human health. The fibres are so strong they cannot be broken down by the body, and so sharp they slice into lung tissue.

Even though asbestos is no longer allowed, the number of people dying each year in the UK from asbestos-related diseases continues to rise. So if asbestos is no longer used, why are the death rates still rising?

One reason is that symptoms can take years, or even decades to develop. Asbestos-related diseases are slow and painful. Those who are dying today may have been exposed in the 70’s or 80’s.

Another reason is that asbestos materials are still disturbed today, and people are still getting exposed. Many everyday and seemingly harmless building products can contain asbestos, but you can't tell just from looking at them. Asbestos fibres are so tiny you can’t see them as you breathe them in.

asbestos fibres small

When you start to knock a building about, you disturb materials. Creating dust and releasing fibres. You could accidentally come into contact with asbestos-containing materials. Drilling, sawing, cutting, demolishing. If you disturb asbestos materials you will release deadly fibres into the air.

If the building was originally built before 2000, you need an asbestos survey. That's the only way to know for sure if a suspicious building product or material contains asbestos. If it turns out asbestos-containing materials are likely to get disturbed extra work is needed. They need to be protected from disturbance, or removed in accordance with the Control of Asbestos Regulations.

No one should be put at risk.

Despite all the knowledge surrounding the dangers, and the tight regulations, asbestos exposure is not a problem of the past. HSE site inspections often highlight problems with asbestos management on construction sites. There are usually at least a few high profile asbestos prosecutions each year.

If you work in construction, or any other work likely to be at risk from asbestos, you should have asbestos awareness training. Being aware of this hidden killer helps to keep people protected.

Take the asbestos awareness course, and get your certificate today.

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This article was written by Emma at HASpod. Emma has over 10 years experience in health and safety and BSc (Hons) Construction Management. She is NEBOSH qualified and Tech IOSH.

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